22 Nov The photograph has established itself as a depiction process of the landscape
Birth of Photography . The history of photography describes the events that led to the creation of an instrument capable of recording the surrounding world thanks to the effect of light. The picture took shape in early 800 and developed arriving in establishing itself as an artistic medium capable of supporting the other visual arts.
The photograph has established itself as a depiction process of the landscape, architecture, to portray the nascent bourgeoisie and the people. It also played a fundamental role in the development of journalism and in reportage and the improvement of technology contributed to its extension also in the capture of images of space and the micro world.
Joseph Nicephore Niepce took an interest in the recent discovery of lithography and deepened his studies in search of the substance that could impress itself in the light in an exact manner, maintaining the result over time. After experimenting with different Niepce techniques, in 1826, he succeeded in obtaining the first image drawn by light: spreading a layer of bitumen of Judea reduced to dust and dissolved in essence of lavender on a sheet of copper covered with silver and then dried; then exposing it to light for a few hours on the bottom of a dark room; then plunging the foil into a lavender bath to dissolve the fragments that did not receive the light and obtain a negative image. To obtain the positive one needs a container of iodine crystals that form deposits of silver iodide; removing the paint with alcohol appears the photographic image itself that defines heliography, the mother of modern photography. The only unforeseen event is that the result of his work is not fixed and therefore progressively blackens in contact with light. His subsequent commitment was dedicated to improving the sharpness of the image. In 1827 he met Daguerre and Lemaitre who later became his collaborators. In 1829 he founded an association with Daguerre for the improvement of photosensitive materials. However, he dies before seeing the importance of his research recognized. Daguerre continues the researches that lead him to the daguerreotype, using a copper plate with a thin polished silver leaf applied on top of iodine vapors, forming silver iodide. The exposure to the darkroom followed, where the light made silver iodide silver again in a way proportional to the received light. The image was not visible until exposure to mercury vapor. A bath in a strong solution of common salt fixed the image. The invention, made public, will give the author a life pension. Henry Fox Talbot has gone down in history as the inventor of the positive / negative mechanism.
The first step in this research was to make a common sheet of writing paper light sensitive, dipping it in a solution of salt and silver nitrate. So it was that Talbot got his first negative, placing a leaf on the paper and exposing it to the light to allow the covered parts to darken. Thus he was born of the sciadography (shadowgraph). An evolution of his studies led him to determine the fixing of the image: the stabilized image was obtained by blocking its development and making it permanent, thanks to a washing of paper, impressed with a strong concentration of salt. The 1835 was then the year of birth of the first negative. In 1841 Talbot baptized the first negative-positive process with the name of Calotypia. The calotype was a pioneering discovery of the history of photography , particularly of ” chemical photography “, as modernly understood, as it consisted of the process of obtaining negative photographic prints. The negative, obtained from a sheet of paper soaked in silver iodide and then exposed to light and developed, was printed on equally treated paper. Initially, the process for obtaining the positive simply provided that the negative was re-photographed, to obtain a positive image as it was reversed.