22 Nov To take a picture, long preparations are needed
In 1840, the Englishman Talbot developed the negative-positive procedure, which marks a real progress, because with the negative one can reproduce an image in unlimited copies.Until 1870, the cameras were large wooden boxes mounted on tripods. The main cassette has the lens on the front, the smaller one inside the first has the ground plate for focusing. To take a picture, long preparations are needed: 1) the photographer prepares the sensitive material in the dark, smearing the silver salts on a glass plate; 2) focus on the subject on the glass, holding the head under a black cloth to avoid reflections; 3) remove the frosted glass and replace it with the sensitive plate; 4) goes next to the box, open the lid of the goal and wait for the light to impress the film; 5) finally, extract the slab, which will develop in a dark room.
After 1870, the chemical industry provides already prepared plates, the optical industry provides brighter lenses, the mechanical industry builds metal devices with a shutter. In 1888 the Kodak was born in the United States, which launches a light, simple camera to be used and at a low price. The film contains many frames , and is sent to a development and printing laboratory.
The camera today, it is an improved darkroom, where the rays of the sun enter the lens and are reflected first by the mirror, inclined by 45 °, and then by the pentagonal prism that directs them towards the viewfinder and then to the photographer’s eye. The lens, in the form of a cylinder, is formed by an aluminum or plastic ring called barrel, on which are mounted 3 main elements: the lenses, the focusing system, the diaphragm. The lenses are glass elements similar to discs, but with curved surfaces. They are the eye of the camera and, if they are of good quality, the photos are clearer and flawless. The focus is a screw device, controlled by an outer ring by rotation, which makes small movements of the lenses, forward or backward, until the image is in focus.
After taking photographs, we proceed with printing on paper that is used to produce positive images. It takes place in a green or red light room, which allows the photographer to see objects without the sensitive paper becoming damaged. The negative is inserted into the head of the enlarger (special type of projector), on the plane is placed a white sheet of sensitive paper, the light is turned on and the negative image is projected onto the card. When the light goes out, the cardboard is still white, but there is an invisible image on the surface. The paper is placed in the pan with the developing liquid, which blackens the silver salts affected by the light; after 20 seconds a very blurred image appears, until it is completed in full gray scale. The cardboard is passed into the fixing liquid, and now the image can be viewed in white light. The print is washed in running water and placed in the air until it is dry.
Wanting to make a journey that unites various disciplines in the context of photography , one could start from Italian literature, in particular from Realism which is the general direction of European and Italian culture of the second half of the nineteenth century. Before Realism literature had as its protagonist man, considered as a privileged being, endowed with spirit, self-awareness and free will, ruler of nature and history. With the advent of Realism man begins to be considered a creature subjected to the same conditioning of the environment. For this reason, the literature that represents it must be realistic as science, must abandon the sentimental and the fantastic and must stick to the positive and concrete to discover the laws that determine human behavior; the writers turned to portray the behaviors and environments of the more humble classes in the same way, because the humble are closer to nature and to the “true”, just as a photographer would do that captures images making the facts real in a simple way photography.